Wednesday, February 9, 2011

Longer Lives, Better Health – UNDP 2010 Report

NEWS BANJUL THE GAMBIA (MB)-According to the Human Development report 2010, the real wealth of nations, pathway to Human Development 20 Anniversary Edition. Published by the United Nation Development Programme (UNDP), many countries have achieved large gains in life expectancy. A baby born today, in almost any country can expect to live longer than at any time in history. 
 The report indicated that, life expectancy has risen most in the Arab states, by more than eighteen years since 1970 (just more than a third). Even in Sub Saharan Africa, life expectancy is more than eighteen years longer than in 1970. And increases in longevity were more than twice as rapid in the bottom quarter of countries distribution than in the top quarter. 

 The report went on, in several developing countries distribution than in the top quarter. The report went on, in several developing countries including Chile and Malaysia mortality rates are about 60 percent what they were 30 years ago. The report stated that, maternal mortality rations have also fallen, though by now much is uncertain. UN estimates show a modest five percent decline since 1990 from 430 deaths per 100,000 live births to 400. 
 According to the report a recent study using vital registration data, censuses, survey and verbal autopsy studies found lower levels of maternal mortality and a some what fuster decline of 22 percent (from 320 per, 100.000 to 251) I the same period. The report pointed out that, these data indicate that even the bottom five countries, Mauritania, Eritrea, Angola, Sierra Leone and Guinea Bissau reduced maternal mortality from 1,159 per 100.000 line births to 711). Alternative estimates coincide in one basic assessment. Progress is far slower that needed to reach the Millennium Development Goal target of reducing maternal deaths by three fourths between 1990 and 2015. 
 The report disclosed that, health progress has slowed since 1990, average life span rose about six years between the 1970s and 1990s, but only four years in the subsequent two decades. Adult mortality since 1990s has fallen 23 percent for women, and 6 percent for men, much slower than the declines of 27 previous two decades, infant mortality rates also fell more slowly. 
 The report noted that, this slowdown in aggregate progress is due largely to dramatic reversals I 19 countries (home about 6 percent of the world’s people) the report stated that experienced declines in life expectancy in the past two decades. The report indicated that, in nine countries life expectancy fell below 1970 levels, six  in Africa Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe, and three in the former Soviet Union (Belarus, the Russian federation and Ukraine). The report further went on, during these declines are the HIV epidemic and the mortality reversal in transition economies. These phenomena have partially offset the convergence in health outcomes observed since 1990, though some convergence albeit slow, is observed between the rest of developing countries and developed ones. 
 The report indicated that, the decline in several sub-Saharan African countries can be clearly linked to the HIV epidemics, since the 1980s Aids has slashed life expectancy is southern Africa, where adult HIV prevalence rates still exceed 15 percent. In the most affected countries life expectancy is now below 51 years, in Lesotho it stands at 46 similar to that in England before the industrial Revolution. Since 2000 HIV prevalence rates appear to have been stabilizing most of southern Africa has seen some recent recovery in life expectancy. 
 The report noted that the exceptions are Lesotho, South Africa and Swaziland, which suffered further declines of about four years over the last decade. The declines in the life expectancy in the former soviet union were concentrated among men, the report disclosed that, in the Russian federation male life expectancy plummeted by seven years from 1989 to 1994. There is considerable debate over the causes, alcohol consumption and, after1990, stress during the transition to a market economy with high inflation, unemployment and uncertainty appear to be important in explaining the trends, though disentangling the effects is not easy. 
 According to the report, one study found 21 percent of 25.000 men autopsied in Liberia between 1990 and 2004 whose deaths were attributed to circulatory disease had lethal blood.

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