Thursday, February 25, 2010

Journalist trained on Biosafety Clearing House

NEWS BANJUL, THE GAMBIA(MB)- About forty journalists from print and electronic were on Wednesday 17th February 2010 converged at Baobab Resort for a day long sensitization on Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) and Living Modified Organism (LMO), a program organized by Department of Parks and Wildlife Management funded by GEF/UNEP.
Speaking earlier, Alpha Omar Jallow the Director of Parks and Wildlife Management revealed that the Gambia has signed the convention on biological diversity (CBD) in 1992 and its Cartagena protocol on biosafety (CPB) on 24th May 2000.According to him the convention on biological diversity is the parent body to Cartagena protocol on biosafety; adding that the implementation of the parent body and CBD requires parties to the convention to take measures to regulate and manage or control the risks associated with the use and release of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) into the environment.” The Gambia has already developed the National Biosafety Framework document which is the policy document that contains relevant information on existing laws, regulation and policies relevant to genetically modified organism”, he added.
Director Jallow further went on to say the biosafety framework is meant to guide all processes regarding to safe handling, use and movement of GMOs into the country by means of proposed administrative structures. He noted that the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety is an international instrument that deals exclusively with GMOs which promotes biosafety by establishing practical rules and procedures for the safe handling and use of GMOs with specific focus on regulating movement of these organisms across borders from one country to another.
For his part, Alhagie Manjang BCH project coordinator said that the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety is an international agreement concluded and adopted in the framework of the convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). According to him the objectives includes convention of biodiversity, sustainable use of biodiversity and fair and equitable sharing of benefits to contribute in ensuring an adequate level of protection in the safe transfer, handling and of living modified organisms resulting from modern biotechnology that may have adverse effects on the conservation. He noted that the protocol applies to the transboundary movement, transit, handling and use of all living modified organisms that may have adverse effects on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity taking also into account risks to human health.
Mr. Kawsu Jammeh alias Jakarta, PoWPA project manager stated that genetically modified foods are developed and marketed because there is some perceived advantage either to the producer or consumer of these foods. This according to him is meant to translate into a product with a lower price, greater profit or both. Noting that initially genetically modified seed developers wanted their products to be accepted by producers, so have concentrated on innovations that farmers would appreciate. Adding that, genetic engineering offers a rapid and precise method of alerting organisms as compared to traditional methods that are slow and inaccurate.
Abdoulie Sawo park warden and also the assistant BCH coordinator revealed that the protocol on Biosafety Clearing House (BCH) was established in order to facilitate the exchange of scientific, technical, environmental and legal information on Living Modified Organism (LMOs) and for the parties assist including the Gambia to implement the protocol under the BCH project.
According to him all parties will need to put some basic information and non-parties are also encouraged to contribute appropriate information to the BCH. ”Required information should be posted within define time frames or as soon as feasible”, he emphasize.
Mr. Sawo further elucidated that some of the benefits of using the BCH include access to information about the national laws, regulations and guidelines of parties and other countries decisions and assessment relating to specific LMOs.
For Dr. Ebrima Njie lecturer at the University of the Gambia stated that genetic engineering is a set of techniques for isolating, modifying, multiplying and recombining genes from different organisms; adding that this enables geneticists to transfer genes between species belonging to different kingdoms that would have no probability of interbreeding in nature. “This practice originated in 1970s as the result of discovery of several key techniques in molecular genetics and the handling of GMO is multifaceted which could compromise the integrity of scientist, reduce organisms including human beings to commodities, intensify the exploitation and oppression of the third world and threaten human and animals health”, said Dr. Njie.

Women Farmers cry assistance

NEWS BANJUL, THE GAMBIA(MB)- According to reports reaching Mansa Banko revealed that Women farmers in Jarra West has called on the government, NGOs community to provide local ponds or salo that link them to their rice fields as accessibility to their rice fields is becoming impossible. In a bid to confirm the story, mansa banko send a reporter to visit the area and talked with few women farmer to throw a light to the issue, and this is what has said.
Speaking to Mrs. Fatou Camara of pakalinding said that their rice fields are natural irrigation area (tidal irrigation) once the river is at high tide the rice fields get irrigated, so for that being the case there are several ponds linking the feeder roads to the various rice fields but now become extremely difficult for one get access his/her field. According to her communities such as Karantaba, Kani kunda, Sankuya, Toniataba, Soma, and many others is all farming in the area, despite others travelled 4 to 5 km daily to their rice fields. Mrs Camara further lamented on the condition of the feeder roads, but special emphasis was laid on the conditions of the local ponds that require special attention.
According to the forty year old farmer that some decades years ago the ponds were made by bantapalas and later ladep project also intervene in a form of tesito (community work) and since the ponds worn off there has not been able to receive any assistance. She then called on government and NGOs for support, as they have harvesting their farms and transportation of the proceeds becomes the issue.
For her part, Mrs Mbaka Drammeh Saidykhan the lady councilor of Jarra Kanikunda revealed that with this rice fields alone if they have the require support( adequate farming tools and fertilizers and on time) they will not only feed their families but other regions and the issue of food insecurity will be a thing of the past. Noting that the issue of these local ponds (salo) is of paramount important as it is linking point to the rice fields. “ We carry seedlings during transplanting period or harvested product to cross via these ponds through muddy which is the most difficult thing to do when it comes farming in this area”, she added. When she was asked whether they cannot quit farming from the area and farm else where since they are facing a lot of difficulties? She responded in negative, adding that the land is very ideal for rice cultivation and the level of rampage is very minimal. She noted that as productivity is always high due to its fertility farmers are always eager improve their productivity in other to have more, since their children school fees and other wellbeing is attach to it. She used the opportunity to urge her fellow women farmers not sell their proceeds at a give away price just for a one day ceremony or for social needs that is not a priority to their daily living. Adding that considering the difficulties in farming, it will be unnecessary for one to sell all his/ her products just for a mere asobee or ceremonies, this she added that this would only threatening the realization of the poverty reduction strategic paper and the crusade to achieve food self sufficiency.

HIV/AIDS impacts is unique

As AIDS kills adults in the prime of their lives
NEWS BANJUL, THE GAMBIA(MB)- Alieu Jammeh the director of National Aids Secretariat (NAS) has made it categorically clear that the impact of HIV/AIDS is unique because AIDS kills adults in the prime of their lives, thus depriving families, communities and entire nations of their young and most productive people. According to him this has added to the already heavy diseases burden in poor countries, the epidemic is deepening and spreading poverty, reversing human development, worsening gender inequalities eroding the capacity of government to provide essential services reducing labor productivity and hampering pro-poor growth.
Director Jammeh made these remarks in a two day forum for sensitization of National Aids Services Organization (NASO) on mainstreaming HIV and AIDS into the poverty reduction strategic paper held at paradise conference hall ended on Wednesday 17th February 2010.
According to him it is of crucial importance for the fact that the brunt of the burden is borne by women in their multiple roles as caretakers, breadwinners and subsistence farmers; adding that poverty, gender and HIV/AIDS seem to be closely intertwined. “In the early stage of the pandemic the better educated and better- off are more vulnerable to HIV infection, mainly because of higher resources and greater mobility”, he added. Noting that poverty reduction strategies are becoming the main development planning instruments in many countries, determining national priorities and domestic as well as external resource allocation. He further revealed that mainstreaming HIV related priorities helps create an enabling policy and resource environment for an effective response to the epidemic, thus achieving synergy between diverse interventions across many sectors and ensuring adequate financing for HIV/AIDS. Director Jammeh further elucidated that there is a greater need for capacity building of NASO to effectively undertake oversight role on all HIV and AIDS matters and resource mobilization and coordination from governments.
For his part, Mr. Abdou Touray the director general national planning commission stated that globally UNAIDS report revealed that HIV/AIDS is on the decline and results of 2007 sentinel survey in the Gambia also revealed a dramatic reduction in the prevalence level of about one hundred percent from 2.8 percent to 1.4 for HIV-1in 2006, whilst HIV-2dropped to 0.05 percent in 2007. Adding that prevalence rates have declined in almost all towns as it reduced from 4.8 percent in 2006 to 1.3 in Brikama, Sibanor, Farafenni, Essau and Basse in 2007.
According to him this development is attributed largely to positive behavioral change; noting that despite such gains registered in the national response to HIV-AIDS, there is still an apparent gap between knowledge and behavior change as well as insufficient knowledge of the key drivers of the epidemic. “ This sensitization forum will therefore provide the opportunity to share with policy-makers the experience in mainstreaming and strengthening the process of integrating AIDS into PRSPs to address the root causes and consequences of HIV epidemic its links to poverty”, he disclosed.
Mr. Touray added that in order to mainstream AIDS, national development instruments need to factor in the implication of HIV for overall poverty-reduction and growth, noting that such national strategies and plans should include strategies needed to stem the spread of HIV, to scale up the provision of care, treatment and support and enhance resilience to cope with the impacts of HIV and other shocks at individual, household, and community levels.
He further asserted that it is clear that stronger advocacy, sensitization and institutional linkages are needed, which has a need greater support and capacity building in promoting and ensuring that HIV-AIDS is all mainstreamed in all national development instruments. “Therefore there is great need for NAS and NPC to coordinate mainstreaming efforts and play the role of brokers on this critical relationship between different stakeholders”, said Mr. Touray.

Youth Ambassadors witness final graduation

NEWS BANJUL, THE GAMBIA(MB)- About fifty young people who have successfully completed their one year course on peace building training and were certified as peace educators, in a ceremony held at Join officers mess over the weekend.
Speaking at the ceremony the out going president of youth ambassadors of peace, Mr. Buba Darboe highlighted the importance of the occasion, adding that any one who wants to be a member of YAP must be subjected to training. “As you can see these young grandaunts, we have found them fit and capable to be peace educators”, he added.
According to him youth ambassadors of peace is committed in ensuring that peace is cultivated in the minds of the young people who are the cream of any nation and for meaningful development to happened peace and stability should prevail.
For his part, Fabakary Kalleh the executive secretary of youth ambassadors of peace (YAP), reveal that YAP intend to create a situation where peace is planted in the minds and hearts of people. According to him YAP plans for tomorrow taking in cognizance of yesterday, in the past decades Africa has been painted with red blood of her sons. “ Quotation from various thinkers that every African living in Africa is a potential refugee, yes it was a situation that challenge us to turn the table which can only be possible by the sons of Africa”, he stress.
He noted that, they were convinced that with the instrument of peace, dialogue and understanding, tolerance and forgiveness, freedom and democracy, we can lift the society from that trouble part into tomorrow base on peace and development. He further pointed out that the role of peace educator is to empowered young people to be specially responsible after provided them with alternative inform choices in dealing with conflict. To him conflict is inevitable and therefore there is a need to resolve conflict transformative without violence or war.
According to him this grandaunts were well trained in peace building and amongst the modules trained includes gender perspective in peace building, women in violence, roles of stakeholders in peace building, violence against women, human rights to mentioned few. “As peace builders there is a greater need for people to live in a qualitative human relationship and YAP will ensure that peace is cultivated in minds and hearts of people to ensure that people enjoy their human rights as human beings”, said Mr. Kalleh.
Mr. Kalleh further disclosed that in months time Youth Ambassadors of Peace (YAP) will be change to Peace Ambassadors of the Gambia (PAG).
Edmund Foley legal officer institute for human rights and development in Africa, said that for those who has studied human right, human right began out of struggle. According to him the United Nation talks about mankind in two occasion has been ravages by wars and from that process a universal declaration of human rights in 1948 when the second world war ended in 1945. He noted that since then there are so many treaties and international agreements and constitutions, which see to protect human rights.
“Human Rights are something that is own by human beings and needs not confrontation every time”, he added. He emphasizes that as grandaunts they have tasked themselves to promote peace in the minds of people and to ensure that every individual person enjoy his /her human rights as human beings; I have charged you as educators to maintain the peace by preaching/teaching peace for people to use dialogue in solving conflicts.
For him the challenges are the wider society is going to look at you (peace educators) as children be bold and assertive; and you have started in the Gambia but in the future you may assign in the continental for a greater assignment.
The vote of thanks was given by Mr. Siaka Dibba and the ceremony was characterized by a drama presentation and songs.

Magazine Party Concided with Salary Increment

NEWS BANJUL, THE GAMBIA(MB)- Staff of the Gambia News and Report Magazinerecently held a staff party at the Dippa Kunda residence of theEditor-in-chief and Publisher of the Magazine, Swaebou Conateh.
Mr. Conateh used the occasion to announce a salary increment for the staff, with effect from 1 January 2010.News and Report Magazine is the only current affairs magazine in The Gambia established on the 18 February 1992 by Swaebou Conateh.
Speaking on the occasion, Seedy Njie, the accountant, said “the staff at News and Report are one family”, and he advised the staff, particularly the reporters, “to be patient in order to get what you want”.
Amadou Bah the production manager said “we should be doing this (holding a staff party) often”.
Madi Ceesay, the Editor and Publisher of The Daily News newspaper, who is a former employee of the magazine, was also at the staff party, and in a brief statement noted that “News and Report is a school for journalists”.
“All the experience I acquired in Journalism, I got it from Mr. Conateh”, he pointed out.
A freelance editor with the magazine, Alieu Sagnia, said the people associating with Mr. Conateh have a lot to learn from his knowledge and experience”. He pointed out that Mr. Conateh has vast experience when it comes to journalism, both at the national and international arenas.
Joe Wilson a technician also attended as “a friend of the media”. “For me, I’m a friend of the media. Wherever you go, I will join you” he said.
Martha Cardos, a secretary and compositor, said “in anything one is doing he/she must have a time to work and a time for a break, and today we are having a break. We have come together, as one family, to relax, chat, and enjoy ourselves. I am very happy, and I can see it in every staff member’s face that they look joyous, and very pleased.
Mamadou Edrisa Njie a senior staff reporter said “the party was very nice, and I really enjoyed it to the maximum. “I advise the management to help us organise this kind of party quarterly. As reporters, it is good to be sitting with your boss and seniors and taking advice from them, If you are really interested in learning. I thank the management and news room coordinator, Ismaila MS Naban, for guiding me through.
“For me this party turned out to be a lecture session. I was very happy and took note of all the advice. Mr. Conateh said as a journalist you should know your community, and he went into details to explain the importance of the profession.
Adding his voice at the party, Ismaila MS Naban, the Editorial Assistant, said:
“Actually it was a good move by the staff. This will help to bring closeness among the staff. In any set up closeness is very vital, as without closeness we are tempted to be suspicious of one another. News and Report has always been one family, since the time when Madi Ceesay was here. It is like a family, and I hope it will continue like this”. His advice for the young journalists is: “We must endure to read very well; read any document that comes your way. Nobody is born a professional. Journalism starts from scratch in order to climb up the ladder” he added.
Mr. Naban called on the young journalists to come together. As he puts it: “Solidarity in the media is the best thing that we do or else we cannot achieve what we want”.

Chamber Prexy Urges Companies To Register

NEWS BANJUL, THE GAMBIA(MB)-The President of the Gambia Chamber of Commerce and Industry (GCCI), Mr. Bai Matarr Drammeh, has called on companies operating in the country to register with the chamber.
Drammeh made this call in a exclusive interview yesterday, at his office at 3D Cosulting in Fajara.
According to Drammeh, they are calling on all companies in the country to come and register with the chambers as it is here for them. He added that it is important for companies or associations of companies to take application forms to be a member as there are lots of benefits at the chambers.
He stated that to become a member the fees vary, depending on the size of the company, noting that the minimum fee is D1000 and the maximum D15000. He added that any amount that the companies register with the chambers is also the amount of their yearly subscription fees.
He explained that GCCI is a non-political organisation, whose membership belongs to different political parties. But he was quick to say that as a chamber they must have good real functional parternership with the government of the day.
According to him, the government needs the chambers and in turn the chamber also needs the government as they need to table some of their problems with the government so as to get solutions.
The GCCI prexy noted that “with more companies registering with the chambers and paying their yearly subscriptions they are supporting themselves as members of the chambers”. Companies, Drammeh said, must join the chambers as they are partners in development.
“Being a member of the chambers”, he explained, would make it possible for them to have addresses of companies and contacts. He said as of now there is no statistics on how many companies are operating in the country, which he said, is very sad.
As a chambers, Drammeh noted that they had taken the issue with the government to address the high cost of electricity for domestic use.
“We complained to the government about the rates of NAWEC and now the rates have gone down and all the companies are enjoying it, being a member or not. So you see what the chambers is doing. The reduction of the tariff is benefitting everybody,” he stated.
Drammeh revealed that the chambers is also discussing the issue of taxes with the government for possible reduction, adding that in the near future they hoped that the taxes would also be reduced.
Drammeh also explained that the yearly subscription and registration fees of companies and the annual gala dinners the chambers organises are what keeps them going.
“We use these monies to pay our staff among other things that the chambers needs to spend money on,” he said.
He added that from the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) to Board of Directors, President, 1st and 2nd Vice-President, are all not paid a single butut, that they serve the chambers voluntarily and also put in some of their resources.
“We volunteer our money, our resources and time just to keep the chambers alive,” he concluded.

Special Rapporteur On Freedom Of Information

NEWS BANJUL, THE GAMBIA(MB)- A report covering the decriminalised defamatory activities undertaken by the Special Rapporteur on “Freedom of Expression and Access to Information in Africa,” during the inter-session period, May 2009 to November 2009, was made available at the 46th Ordinary Session held in The Gambia from 11- 25 November, 2009.
According to the report, the Special Rapporteur had sent three letters of appeal, and one letter of appreciation to the Republic of The Gambia during the Inter-Session, on 22nd June 2009, and forwarded an appeal letter to the Republic of The Gambia, addressing the deterioration of freedom of expression in the country.
The Rapporteur made reference to the alleged warning made by President Yahya Jammeh, to Imam Baba Leigh, the Imam of Kanifing mosque on 22 May, 2009, while addressing a rally, to desist from publicly criticising him.
In addition, it also cited the alleged warning he made to media practitioners that they would face legal action if they reported any remarks made by the Imam.
On the recent case of the six journalists, in her appeal, the Special Rapporteur mentioned that the journalists, arrested on 15 June 2009, were alleged to have been detained incommunicado. The journalists were charged with conspiracy to publish and publishing seditious publication “with intent to bring into hatred or contempt or to excite disaffection against the person of the President of the Republic of The Gambia, and conspiracy to commit criminal defamation with intent to bring the President of the Republic of The Gambia and the Government of The Gambia into contempt and ridicule.”
According to the report, on 20 July 2009, the Special Rapporteur forwarded another letter of appeal to the Republic of The Gambia where she restated her appeal to the Republic of The Gambia as a state party to the African Charter, to decriminalise media related offences and to amend any existing laws on defamation in conformity with Principle XII of the Declaration, which provides that “no one shall be found liable for true statements, opinions or statement regarding public figures, which it was reasonable to make in the circumstances, public figures shall be required to tolerate a greater degree of criticisim, and sanctions shall never be so severe to inhibit the right to freedom of expression, including by others.”
In subsequently sentencing the six journalists: Ms Sarata Jabbi-Dibba, Mr. Emil Touray, Mr. Pa Modou Fall, Mr. Pap Saine, Mr. Ebrima Sawaneh, and Mr. Sam Sarr by the High Court of The Gambia on 6 August, 2009, the Special Rapporteur forwarded a joint appeal to the President of The Gambia, together with the Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Women in Africa.
The two Special Rapporteurs were particularly concerned about the imprisonment of Ms. Sarata Jabbi-Dibba, and her seven-months-old baby. The appeal stated that Sections 368, 51 (1) (a), read together with 52 (1) (c), and 178 of the Criminal Code Cap 10 Vol. II, Laws of The Republic of The Gambia, which deals with criminal libel and defamation, and which the High Court Judge relied on in sentencing the journalists, were incompatible with and contravenes international and regional guarantees of freedom of expression.
The Special Rapporteur called on the government of The Gambia to repeal these laws and bring them in line with international and regional standards, and also for the President of The Gambia to use his power to pardon the journalists that were imprisoned and release them from jail. Further to this appeal, the journalists were released by virtue of a presidential pardon.
In appreciation, the Rapporteurs stated that on 9 September, 2009, a joint letter was forwarded to the Republic of The Gambia by the Special Rapporteurs.
In another letter of appreciation, the Special Rapporteurs affirmed that “the release of the journalists is a demonstration of the Republic of The Gambia’s desire to engage with relevant human rights stakeholders on the continent and beyond, as well as its commitment to the promotion of human rights in general and freedom of expression, as well as the rights of women and children in particular.”
Finally, the Special Rapporteur also conveyed her gratitude to the President of The Gambia, for accepting her request to undertake a promotion mission in the country.
On 13 July, 2009, the Special Rapporteur received a response from the government of The Gambia with regards to the allegations concerning the Imam of Kanifing, and the incommunicado detention of journalists.
The government refuted all the allegations asserting that “the Gambian press has always carried stories on diverse issues, including publications made by Imam Baba Leigh.”
With regards to the arrest of the journalists, the government of The Gambia submitted that the journalists did not plead to the charges because they had no counsel to represent them.
On the issue of bail, the government stated that the Director of Public Prosecutions objected to their bail on the grounds that they were likely to commit a similar offence, but that the Magistrate granted bail to Sarata Jabbi-Dibba, a lactating ,mother.

AU Commission’s Concerns Over Human Rights

NEWS BANJUL, THE GAMBIA(MB)-The plight of human rights defenders and journalists in many countries, particularly in The Gambia cannot be swept under the carpet.
Moreover, The Gambia which has hosted the African Commission’s sessions for the past two decades should have been a heaven of peace for all human rights activities. These remarks were made by the Chairperson of the African Commission on Human and People’s Rights, Reine Alapini Gansou, at the recently concluded 46 Ordinary Session of the Commission, which ended on 25th November 2009, at the Sheraton Resort and Spa, in Brufut.
Madam Gamsou who delivered the closing remarks, said the situation of women and that of the girl child, and more specifically the problem of maternal and reproductive health continues to constitute a matter of concern. In this regards, she went on, the Commission recommended the holding of the African Conference, Beijing +15, here in The Gambia to support African women in their quest for justice and equity by contributing to the recommendations which had been formulated on this occasion.
“With the framework of its mission of protection, cases of human rights violations and on which it took decisions will be implemented by the states concerned,” she noted.
According to her, they will contribute to the respect for human rights as stipulated in the African Charter.
She said what actually came to mind during the closing session, which therefore appears essential to her is the enormity of the tasks ahead of them.
“Their commission as a whole is conscious of its mission to safeguard human rights and fundamental freedom, and nothing should justify its absence when major decisions and actions are required to deal with critical situations of human rights violations within its mandate,” she stated.
The African Commission on Human and Peoples Rights, she disclosed has already taken action in conformity with the spirit and content of its mandate in relation to human rights situation in Guinea, The Gambia and in Niger.
“Any initiative within this context should adequately take into account what it has achieved and what it intends to do in the future,” she added. She cited that very alarming situations had been of concern to them.
“The desire for the change of the normal constitutional order as is the case in Niger and the systematic refusal to take into consideration the legitimate aspirations of the sovereign people, the serious and large-scale human rights violations in the face of all these tendencies like the case in Guinea, the persistence of armed conflicts with the resulting trail of refugees and internally-displaced in Sudan and Somalia, sexual abuse, raping on a large-scale in North and South Kivi on the DRC, or even intolerance or denial of the rights to dissents even in the countries where there is relative peace, where some of the issues which were discussed positively and at length during their session results in all kinds of suffering for the most vulnerable sections of the population,” she stated.
In her closing speech, on behalf of the Attorney-General and Minister of Justice, Marie Saine-Firdaus, the Senior State Counsel, Mrs. Isatou Grahamd said that “in order for Africans to stand up to Asia, and be taken as a serious world economic contender we should stop prioritising civil and political rights over economic, social and cultural rights.
“The clear nexus between economic, social and cultural rights and 2020, underscores the human rights based approach to development, which has enabled Southeast Asian countries such as Malaysia, Japan, Singapore, Taiwan and China to upgrade their economic status and transcend from that of Third World countries to a highly developed country. These gigantic economic transitions had enabled these countries in fulfilling all the requirements and conditions of Vision 2020,” she added.
According to her, the African Charter is their manifesto for a better developed Africa, which she said calls for a shared commitment to improve human rights condition in Africa.
She noted that despite their regional variations and challenges encountered in the promotion of human rights, it is imperative for them to assess their shortcomings and demonstrate their intention to make human rights an integration process in their region.
“Therefore the watch words should be development, democracy and respect for human rights,” she said, noting that with such determination the outcome of the session would not only be on paper but be part of a legal framework which would be incorporated by their various governments as part of their policies.

A Look At The Egypt's Great Pyramid of Giza

NEWS BANJUL, THE GAMBIA(MB)-There is a saying that when one visit the Arab Republic of Egypt, and fails to make a visit to the Pyramids, his or her trip is not complete.
The Pyramids have become a cite of attraction to not only Western tourists, but even to some Africans visiting the Arab Republic of Egypt for various reasons.
This was why when the group of African journalists, which included this reporter, visited Egypt at the fag end of last year, for the 34th Training Course for Young African journalists, they could not afford to fail to visit the Great Pyramid of Giza, with the kind assistance of the Egyptian Ministry of Media.
The visiting journalists, no wonder met at there a group of western tourists who also came to get a panoramic view of the Pyramids.
But what is the Great Pyramid of Giza?
The Great Pyramid of Giza (also called the Pyramid of Khufu and the Pyramid of Cheops) is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now Cairo, Egypt, and is the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World that survives substantially intact, Historians have it.
It is believed the pyramid was built as a tomb for Fourth dynasty Egyptian King (Pharaoh) Khufu(Cheops in Greek) and constructed over a 20 year period concluding around 2560 BC.
The visiting journalists were informed by their tour guides to the Great Pyramid that it was the tallest man-made structure in the world for over 3,800 years, and unsurpassed until the 160 meter tall spire of Lincoln Cathedral was completed.
Originally the Great Pyramid was covered by casing stones that formed a smooth outer surface, but what is seen today is mainly only the underlying core structure.
Some of the casing stones that once covered the structures could still be seen around the base.
However, the African journalists were informed that "there have been varying scientific and alternative theories regarding the Great Pyramid's construction techniques.
"Most accepted construction theories are based on the idea that it was built by moving huge stones from a quarry and dragging and lifting them into place".
But according to available information about the Great Pyramid of Giza, there are three known chambers inside the Great Pyramid.
The lowest chamber is cut into the bedrock upon which the pyramid was built and was unfinished. The so-called Queen's Chamber and King's Chamber "are higher up within the pyramid structure''.
Available information further revealed that The Great Pyramid of Giza is the main part of a complex setting of buildings that included two mortuary temples in honor of Khufu (one close to the pyramid and one near the Nile), three smaller pyramids for Khufu's wives, an even smaller "satellite" pyramid, a raised causeway connecting the two temples, and small mastaba tombs surrounding the pyramid for nobles.
The total mass of the great pyramid today is estimated at 5.9 million tonnes, and the first precision measurements of the pyramid were reported to have been done by Egyptologist called Sir Flinders Petrie in 1880-1882, and published in 1885 as Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh. And almost all reports are said to be based on his measurements.
According to historical records, in AD 1300, a massive earthquake loosened many of the outer casing stones of the Great Pyramid, which were then carted away by Bahri Sultan An-Nasir Nasir-ad-Din al-Hasan in 1356 in order to build mosques and fortresses in nearby Cairo (the capital city of Egypt).
The Great Pyramid is also noted to be the only pyramid known to contain both ascending and descending passages.
The original entrance to the Great Pyramid is said to be 55' vertically about ground level and 24' east of the centre line of the pyramid. From the original entrance,the Descending Passage is said to be 3'11" in height and 3'5" in width which goes down at an angle of 26° 31'23" through the masonry of the pyramid and then into the bedrock beneath it.
Some Egyptologists are of the view that the Lower Chamber was intended to be the original burial chamber, but that King Khufu later changed his mind and wanted it to be higher up in the pyramid.
But Egyptologist Bob Brier is said to have the belief that it was an insurance policy in case Khufu died early. That when he was still alive and healthy after about 5 years of construction, the second (Queen's) chamber was begun. Sometime around the fifteenth year this chamber was also abandoned unfinished and the last or King's Chamber was built high up in the center of the pyramid.
Today, tourists enter the Great Pyramid via a forced tunnel said to be dug by the Caliph Al-Ma'mum and his men around 820 AD.
The King's Chamber, according to history, is entirely faced with granite, the blocks of stone being fitted with such precision that it is impossible to insert a piece of paper between them.
"Above the roof, which is formed of nine slabs of stone weighing in total about 400 tons, are five compartments known as Relieving Chambers. The first four, like the King's Chamber, have flat roofs formed by the floor of the chamber above, but the final chamber has a pointed roof.
"Vyse suspected the presence of upper chambers when he found that he could push a long reed through a crack in the ceiling of the first chamber. From lower to upper, the chambers are known as "Davidson Chamber", "Wellington Chamber", "Lady Arbuthnot Chamber" and "Cambell's Chamber". It is believed that the compartments were intended to safeguard the King's Chamber from the possibility of a roof collapsing under the weight of stone above the Chamber.
"As the chambers were not intended to be seen, they were not finished in any way and a few of the stones still retain mason's marks painted on them. One of the stones in Cambell's Chamber bears a mark, apparently the name of a work gang, which incorporates the only reference in the pyramid to Pharaoh Khufu," it was gathered.
According to authors Briar and Hobbs , "all the pyramids were robbed" by the New Kingdom, when the construction of royal tombs in a desert valley, now known as the Valley of the Kings, began.
Joyce Tyldesley was reported to have held that the Great Pyramid itself "is known to have been opened and emptied by the Middle Kingdom", before the Arab caliph Abdullah al-Mamun entered the pyramid around AD 820.
It was therefore an opportune moment for the young African journalists from 15 African countries when they had the pleasure of seeing the Great Pyramid of Giza, thanks to the Egyptian

Anti-Corruption Laws, Good Governance, Accountability in Africa

NEWS BANJUL, THE GAMBIA (MB)-For many countries in Africa, corruption remains pervasive because the laws and institutions which exist to combat it are either inadequate or ineffective. The problem sometimes is that corrupt leaders, who are lawmakers, do not make laws to curb corruption because they would by so doing be creating problems for themselves.
On the other hand, the fight against corruption goes beyond merely enacting laws that states corruption is illegal and once discovered is punishable under the country's law. However, the legislative framework is the starting point in the fight against corruption, " if the laws are to be implemented," coupled with it is the need to have political will on the part of political leadership of a country.
This is because some countries have good pieces of legislation, which paint an impressive picture of the legal framework but remains ineffective when it comes to implementation.
Without a strong political commitment, the good laws will not achieve the desired result of being effective tools for fighting corruption. Going through, one can define corruption as a scourge, a menace, a disease and an epidemic. It is corruption that affects a country most, because it is the wealth or resources which, instead of going to the general public for the public good, end up getting into private pockets, which can be defined as "dishonest or illegal", why this in Africa?
From this point of view, more work needs to be done in Africa to combat the menace of corruption, as it has been widely acknowledged that it poses a threat both to human development and to the security of a country. Economically, corruption has disastrous effects and is even evil. Weak economies that characterise most African countries are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of corruption. Corruption undermines democracy and the rule of law. It impedes development and weakens social stability and the end result could be conflict in a country.
Much of the poverty in Africa can be attributed to poor governance, in addition, poor governance in itself is caused by, corruption coupled with bad policies formulated and implemented by governments, among other things. Infact, when one talks of corruption, it is unavoidable not to talk also of good governance. Good governance means a system of governance that is free of abuse and corruption and which pays due regard to the rule of law. Good governance needs organised and informed participation in public affairs of all and sundry, such participation could either be direct or through legitimate intermediate institutions or representatives.
Transparency counts a lot when we talk about good governance, on the other hand, accountability also plays a crucial role in good governance, that is governmental institutions, private sector, and civil society organisations must be accountable to the public and their institutional stakeholders.
Corruption thrives more easily in circumstances where there is no transparency or accountability on the part of government to the citizens.
Accountability ensures that all actions taken by public officials are subjected to scrutiny by the citizenry, and their participation is deemed necessary to ensure that public system are free of corruption, this can happen if they are part and parcel of the whole process.
However, there is need to have a vibrant civil society and media to act as a check on the actions taken by the government, this can be found in article 4 of the African Union Convention on Corruption and Related Offences. This article deals at length with what the civil society and the media are to do in the fight against corruption and the actions that states parties are to take to ensure that these players are allowed space to play their role.
Public accountability has been measured by looking at whether or not the government consults its citizens through open and free discussions that affects the public. These discussions can be through the media using it pages to disseminate the information to the public, with this point African leaders need to know that free and independent press counts a lot.
If the fight against corruption is to be won in Africa, all the elements necessary for its eradication must be present, these includes public participation in the democratic process, accountability of all institutions, the presence of watchdog institutions and effective anti-corruption strategies that have political support and coherence.
Where any of these elements are lacking or in effective, anti-corruption goals will not be easy to achieved, the media needs to be given access to information in cases of corruption and related offences.
An independent press is essential in the fight against corruption because for the war against corruption to be won there is need to expose corruption wherever it occurs, by naming and shaming the perpetrators.
Sometimes just naming and shaming can do the trick of reducing corruption, in addition another tool to measure the extent of compliance with the commitment will be the collaboration, if any, that the government has had with the media in action plans to fight corruption. This will include the participation by the media in any workshops and seminars that would have been arraigned by the government where the input of the media has been made.

Monday, February 22, 2010

GAMBIA celebrates 45th Independence

President Jammeh calls for honesty and patriotism
Africa » Gambia

The Gambian leader His Excellency Sheikh Professor Alhaji Dr Yayha AJJ Jammeh has underscored the importance of patriotism and honesty in achieving our national development objectives, as enshrined in the country's Vision 2020 blueprint.

According to the Gambian leader, with the absence of patriotism and honesty, no nation can achieve rapid sustainable development, no matter how well resources-endowed it may be or how well meaning its government is.

President Jammeh made these remarks yesterday at the July 22nd Square in Banjul, while addressing Gambians on the occasion of the country's 45th Independence Anniversary. The President's address this year was focused on the theme of the independence celebration; "Honesty and Patriotism".

This celebration was attended by the Senegalese president Abdoulaye Wade, Guinea Conakry's president Saikouba Konateh, the Speaker of Guinea Bissau's National Assembly who was representing Malang Bachai Sangnia, the president of Guinea Bissau, Her Excellency Aja Dr Isatou Njie-Saidy, vice president and minister of Women's Affairs, the Speaker of the National Assembly Hon Elizabeth Renner, cabinet ministers, former goverment officials, service chiefs, National Assembly members, members if the Diplomatic and Consular Corps, regional governors and mayors, members of the security forces, teachers and students from various schools within the Greater Banjul Area, cultural troupes, foreign nationals residing in The Gambia and a cross-section of The Gambian population.

Below is the full text of President Jammeh's speech.
Today marks the 45th Anniversary of our country's Independence, and as we celebrate with joy and reflections, we should all give back thanks and praises to the Almighty Allah for enabling us to witness yet another Independence Day when we recount with gratitude, the achievements of the past decades, and anticipate the challenges of the coming years.

The day is a moment indeed to reflect on what we should do better, righter, with added vigour and perseverance to move The Gambia forward to becoming the nation as enshrined in our Vision 2020 development blueprint. It is therefore a moment for individual as well as collective soul- searching for answers to questions of what we must do in order to overcome the daunting challenges and the unending task of nation-building.

This year, I have decided to select 'Honesty and Patriotism' as the theme to underscore the importance of these two attributes, in the absence of which no nation, no matter how well resources endowed it may be or how well meaning its government is, could achieve rapid sustainable development. In short, I wish to reiterate the need for all of us to inculcate and demonstrate a more practical show to honesty, and selfless services to and infinite love of our dear motherland, The Gambia.

We must put The Gambia first before self, and work together in peace, unity, and mutual respect if we are to earn the blessings of The Almighty Allah for us to build one of the greatest nations on earth. It is not a far-fetched dream since small countries like Singapore were able to do it with meagre resources. For us to build a modern nation that is better than the rest, we must be ready to put our faith in Allah first and put our country's interest above our individual interest.

Fellow Gambians,
We must be ready to work harder and for longer hours with the little salaries that our country can afford now until such time that The Gambia is wealthy enough to pay fat salaries. This is what the Japanese, the Chinese and Singaporeans had to do before becoming what they are today; modern economic giants where low salaries are a thing of the past.

We have a choice to make ' work harder with absolute honesty and build an ultra modern nation in a short span of time; where poverty, small salaries and backwardness would be a thing of the past or work less, be dishonest and stagnate the country into a backward nation where poverty, destitution and low wages would be the order of the day. Nobody can sacrifice without being honest. You cannot be honest if you do not believe in Allah the Almighty and fear him.

Fellow Gambians,
I am confident that after forty-five years of Independence, every Gambian knows what the benefits of honesty, hard work and patriotism are. Four hundred years of British rule, not even one Gambian was ever commissioned to the rank of Lieutenant in the Colonial Army. Four hundred years of British rule, not a single Gambian was trained by the colonial master to be a Medical Doctor. Four hundred years of British rule, not a single Gambian was trained to be a scientist. Four hundred years of British rule, they built only one high school (Armitage High School) and two hospitals " Bansang and Royal Victoria Hospitals. Four hundred years of British rule, they constructed only one highway " Banjul to Soma.

Four hundred years of British rule, they did not build even one two-storey building. And at the time of Independence 45 years ago, there were less than fifteen air conditioners in the country and less than five hundred ceiling fans. Four hundred years of British rule did not give us more than four megawatts of electricity in the whole country. In fact, four hundred years of British rule less than one percent of the country was electrified. Today, 45 years, The Gambia had become a modern country to be reckoned with. Today, 75% of the big town and cities are electrified including streetlights.

Four hundred years of British rule left us with 95% of the population without potable drinking water. Today, 85% of the population have potable, accessible and reliable drinking water. Today, we have more high schools and modern tertiary institutions and a university that can stand up of any modern university anywhere in the world!!. At the time of Independence 45 years ago, we had less than five Gambians holding a Bachelors degree and none with Masters degree thanks to the colonial government.

One may be tempted to ask why I am reminding the Gambians of what has happened under colonial rule?. The answer is very simple. This is because Africans are perceived by the same countries that colonised us, to be incapable of governing well ie. provide good governance. I am tempted to ask you this question " What is good government? Build one high school, no university and two hospitals in four hundred years or build hundreds of schools, hospitals and a university in fifteen yeas! Today, we have more than six hundred graduates here in The Gambia! We have more than sixty Medical Doctors in fifteen years trained by The Gambia government.

Today, we have a modern airport, modern highways including street lighting. Still we are accused of bad governance! Not one surviving colonial building was built by the British except for the various forts for defence and James Island Fort for keeping slaves and the Mile Two Prisons later on, the same James Island Fort was used to stop slavery.

If we were incapable of caring for our people before the colonial era, and if we were such ruthless rules, how come there were no prisons in the whole of Africa before the coming of the white man?. In Africa and more so The Gambia, there is no local name for a ?prison? in any of the local languages! Still we are not democrats and not capable of good governance!!

Fellow Gambians, boys and girls, let nobody fool you. We have seen the difference between Gambia four hundred years under British rule, and Gambia thirty years after Independence and fifteen years after the July 22nd 1994 Revolution.

My Dear Compatriots,
Let us unite with honesty; work hard and this country will surpass Great Britain in five more years Allah willing. Nobody is going to develop our country for us. Nobody can love this country more than we the citizens of this country. Only we The Gambians working together and putting our collective national interest first can make this country an economic superpower we aspire to be in the very near future, Allah willing. As we celebrate 45 years of nationhood, let us reflect on where we came from, where we are today and where we would want to be tomorrow. Where we shall be tomorrow depends first on Allah the Almighty and we the Gambian people.

Excellencies, Distinguished Ladies and Gentlemen,
I want to take this opportunity to thank all our true friends who through the years have been and continue to be very benevolent to this country. True friends they are who stood with us through thick and thin and continue to stand by our side as we march towards a very glorious, dignified, peaceful and prosperous Gambia where poverty, destitution and backwardness would be history.

In Allah we put our destiny. In Allah we entrust our nation's destiny. With Allah on our side, we shall never fail. We shall never be backward. We shall never be colonised, enslaved or subjugated again. Not even for one day.

Fellow Gambians,
In general, Africa's progress has been retarded and continues to be so, largely because of the attitude of Some African leaders and intellectuals, who fail in their duties and responsibilities, and often in their deceit of the poor, the illiterate and the vulnerable, promote corruption, disunity and the continuous plundering of the continent's vast resources at the expense of Africa.

I would like to warn that these unpatriotic and opportunistic tendencies no longer have a place or space to thrive in The Gambia of today, because patriots no matter their size and numbers, would not relent but instead triumph in their struggle to defend and protect the interest of the masses from the man-made calamities of today that are abound in many parts of the continent. Like honesty, patriotism requires good and positive thinking and not tribalism and malicious acts that only lead to discord, disunity, and instability which, as a continent we should not and would no longer tolerate.

Fellow Gambians, Boys and Girls,
Honesty and patriotism in nation-building also require that we move from conducting "business as usual'' to adopting innovative, more responsive and improved measures, systems and processes. Development is only possible through the adoption of a revolutionary path and a radical but well guided departure from carefree or noncommittal attitude. I therefore wish to call on all of you to be more committed to the delivery of effective, efficient and honest services to our Dear Motherland. It is only when we do so that we can cut down on the high transaction costs as well as the time involved in delivering public services. In our pursuit to become distinctly identified as the most progressive nation, I would like to urge that we all work hard with honesty at all times to make The Gambia a citadel for economic prosperity for the rest of mankind in general, and the African continent in particular to emulate.

Ladies and Gentlemen, Boys and Girls,
Attitudinal manifestations in adult life take root in infancy. In this vein, I wish to urge parents and teachers to help inculcate in our children the values of honesty, love and selfless service to the Motherland. This is particularly important because children everywhere constitute today's hope for the future.

Families should be wary of the threats of dangerous foreign cultures that are infiltrating our societies unchecked and exposing our children of lifestyles that are neither African nor Gambian and distinctly UNGOLDY! Government's responsibility in this critical endeavour is however limited only to creating the right environment that would ensure that our children are protected from all forms of exposure to such evil and anti human attributes so that they can develop into virtuous and Allah-fearing adults. The family as a child's first institution of learning has the bigger and more challenging role in moulding children into becoming responsible and dependable adults tomorrow.

For its part, I would like to assure you of my government's continued and unrelenting commitment to promote economic growth, achieve food self-sufficiency and create the enabling environment for the promotion of equity and equality for all as critical ingredients to create a wealthy and prosperous country. My government would not compromise and relent in its efforts to consolidate the achievements of the past fifteen years. In the coming years, with the help of the Almighty Allah, we will do no less than we have done, I as I ask nothing more from you than sincere and committed partnership and rallying fully behind my government. In this way, and together, we would rejoice in the Promised Land of plenty, and in greater prosperity, peace and love where each one of us would be our brother's keeper.

Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen, Boys and Girls,
In conclusion, I would like to thank and congratulate all those persons who have contributed to the grandeur of the occasion, in particular our honoured and distinguished guests from countries friendly to The Gambia. I also wish to acknowledge with profound gratitude and appreciation, the efforts of parents, teachers and school children; and of course, the large turnout of the different cultural and voluntary groups as well as the APRC party militants, particularly those from the Regions.

I also recognise with similar gratitude the presence of the diplomatic and consular corps here present and representing friendly Governments and organisations that continue to stand by us at all times, ready to help us achieve the goals and objectives for which we set ourselves especially Vision 2020 and the MDGs I wish you all a very happy Independence celebration.

Long Live The Gambia!
Long Live Africa!
Long Live all patriotic Gambians!
Long Live Friends of The Gambia!
Long Live Friends of Africa!
I thank you all for your kind attention



We publish below the message from Lamin Waa Juwara leader of the National Democatic Action Movement (NDAM) opposition party on the occasion of the 45th independence anniversary, message for Gambians.

"The 45th anniversary of Gambia's independence on the 18th of February 1965 was on Thursday fittingly celebrated with the entire Gambian population cherishing it, because independence means a lot has been achieved.

Gambia at independence was described as 'an improbable nation' with sceptics all over the world thinking that the Gambia was too small, and that the economy is very weak and cannot sustain itself as an independent state.

And there was a time I remember, as a young student training as a teacher in then Yundum College, when the team of experts were sent by the UN to come and find out what the situation on the ground was. There were some recommendations that the Gambia should merger with Senegal. And, of course, some of us felt that if we were colonised as a country of its own, then we did not see any reason why we should not be independent on our own.

And I was very proud on Thursday at the July 22nd Square when the President delivered a very very good speech to the Gambian people reminding us what transpired historically during the colonial era and after.

And, I felt very proud that the turnout was so impressive, and the cultural manifestation shows the happiness on the faces of the Gambian people, and the pride in them; also showing a strong feeling that they have succeeded, and will continue to succeed and stand on their own, as a nation.

I want to take this opportunity to thank all the architects of Gambia's independence, which I think every Gambian should be proud of them. And, historically, we have recognised their place in the history of the Gambia in the role that they have played.

We are also very proud that their successors, like the current President, is very proud of them and also very inspiring because you can see the self-confidence in the Gambian people. That is why the slogan for this year?s celebration is very fitting.

There is a lot that has been achieved. For some of us, who have seen the independence days, and know what the country looked like, and seeing it today, there is no doubt that we have gone a long way, and I think the Gambia is here to succeed.

Today, the whole world knows about the Gambia and, I think, what even makes this 45th independence anniversary amazingly succeeful, is because of the peace and tranquillity that exist between us and our immediate neighbours. They graced the occasion with us not only at the highest level, but the citizenry were all there to grace the occasion, and that is really a very good sign that it is not only a state to state relationship, but people to people relationship that exists between the people.

The Gambian people are very peaceful, accommodating and not selfish. They can always take care of their guests, sometimes even better than themselves, and I think this is an attitude that should be shown all over the world, that we live in peace and harmony.

Today, the steps that we have taken in development, and the steps that we have taken in good governance, are not imposed from the outside but these are home grown, and I think that is something we should all be proud of. What we have been doing is what we think the way we should govern ourselves or take care of ourselves, and most Gambians are very proud of what we have achieved so far.

And, I will call on them so that we stand together in unity, and make sure that in all the areas where we need to fight, like the fight against poverty, that one day we will not only reduce it, but we are going to eradicate it, once and for all.

I think the potentials are here, and the people's commitment is here, and I think the leadership also is here; therefore, we are going to achieve the noble cause.

The challenges also are there, but these challenges are not insurmountable. Where you have people who are united, they can always do things to their very best.

And I also think it was very fitting in the President's speech when he thanked the friends of the Gambia, because we are living in a global village and no country can live by itself alone. So you have to make friends, and genuine friends can always help in the course of our development.

I can tell you that I salute the entire Gambian people, young and old, male and female and congratulate the President and Government of the Gambia and all the people who have participated in this celebration. I single out the organising committee for this celebration, I think they have done a good job and we thank them and hope to celebrate many more independence anniversaries. I thank you all."

NRP Independent Message

NEWS BANJUL, THE GAMBIA (MB)- Gambian opposition party leader of the National Reconcilation Party (NRP0 Hamat NK Bah, in his independence anniversary message to his compatriots calls for diligence to overcome poverty, among other things. The message reads:

"Political independence in the absence of economic independence is almost meaningless. In Africa, as a continent, with few exceptions, we must work harder to economically empower our people by eradicating poverty. Poverty cannot be eradicated by mere speeches or drafted programmes in workshops or pronouncement at political rallies or discussions in forums.

We can only eradicate it by working hard in every aspect of our various professions. If we look at Asia, Africa was ahead of Asia in the sixties. Today we are lagging behind, being the poorest continent in the world.

We must change our attitudes, and focus ourselves on producing enough food, reliable and efficient services for our people. We must, as Africans, understand that no amount of aid or assistance can develop our continent, unless we ourselves work hard.

We cannot continue to blame the colonialists for our lack of development. Mal-governance, bad attitudes towards work, laziness are some of the reasons why we are still lagging behind.

We are endowed with natural resources that could make this country one of the riches. We have educated and highly experienced Gambians, who are either unemployed or underemployed. The River Gambia is one of the greatest assets that this country can be proud of, that could make it one of the richest countries in the sub-region.

There’s the need to have a ministry of national re-orientation in this country, that would focus on educating Gambians and the like on the need for a change of attitude and behaviour towards national development.

Some governments already have this type of ministry. I want to suggest that such a ministry be amalgamated with the Ministry of Information that would collaborate with the Ministry of Education to achieve this objective.

Every effort must be made to support Gambians to be more involved in the import/export trade, since this will, no doubt, stand the chance of reducing unemployment and uplifting some from poverty to riches.

We have a situation in this country where non-Gambians are dominating this sector. It is prudent for us to create the necessary atmosphere where Gambians can secure financial support for them to be able to participate in the import/export trade.

We would continue to encourage non-Gambians to come to The Gambia to invest, but they should be encouraged to go into the production sector, so as to create more jobs for the citizenry.

Most of them come with brief cases, open a shop and employ only one labourer, but it will be good if they could go into the production sector to create job opportunities for many."